Family Eucnemidae Coleoptera - Polyphaga - Tarsen-5-5-5
  By Arved Lompe (after Lohse, Reitter, Lucht, Olexa)
Translated by: Mike Hackston
If you find any errors or omissions please mail me at
  Abdominal sternites without visible linking membranes, with all the sternites sharply separated from one another. Hind coxae with distinct covers for the femora. Antennae inserted quite close together in deep, lateral incisions in the head between the eyes. Clypeus distinctly broadened in front. Pronotum loosely articulated to the elytra as in the Elateridae and most easily differentiated from this family by the lack of the membranous links between the last sternites and the form of the clypeus. The larvae develop in wood of damaged trees and old stumps and are generally rare. I have not followed other authors in dividing the family into tribes and (more recently subfamilies) as the situation is still very much in flux.
#1 Femora and tibiae not broadened or flattened. Pronotum with the edges rounded or narrowing towards the front; front angles depressed and front margin truncate.


-- Femora and tibiae distinctly broadened and plate-like. Pronotum broadening evenly towards the front and broadest at the front margin [Abb.1]; the front margin is concave meaning the front angles are angular or in males forming rounded lobes; pronotum without a lobe in the middle of the base in front of the scutellum. Antennae generally broadening towards the tip, with the segments each with a process making it comb-like. Anal sternite compressed at the tip and extending forming an angle. Upper surface densely granular.

   ...Melasis Olivier, 1790

#2 Pronotum with a complete, deep longitudinal furrow to accommodate the antennae immediately below the side angle.


-- Pronotum without a furrow to accommodate the antennae or with a furrow that is located between the process of the prosternum and the under-folded sides of the pronotum.


#3 Antennae with segments four onwards saw-like, broadened outwards [Abb.2]. Head with a longitudinal keel. Pronotum with a transverse basal furrow. Fourth tarsal segment small and simple. Metasternum with two ridges between the middle coxae and the epipleura (which may be covered by the middle femora).

   ...Eucnemis Ahrens 1812

-- Antennae weakly saw-like or narrow. Head without a longitudinal keel. Pronotum without a transverse basal furrow. Base of the metasternum without ridges. Fourth tarsal segment small and two-lobed.


#4 Clypeus triangular and separated from the frons by a smooth rounded keel. Antennae formed of quite broad parallel-sided segments; segment 2 small; segment three scarcely longer than the fourth. Furrow to accommodate the antennae deep.

   ...Dromaeolus Kiesenwetter, 1858

-- The junction between the clypeus and frons is marked only by a basal constriction (between the antennal sockets).


#5 Antennae weakly saw-like with the hind margin of the segments straight; segments 2-4 only slightly differing in length. Frons without a raised border. Antennal furrow shallow. Tibiae simple.

   ...Thambus Bonvouloir, 1871

-- Second segment of the antennae shortened; segments 4-10 weakly rounded on the outer side with rounded outer corners. Tibiae granular along the posterior surface. Asia Minor, Caucasus (Megathambus Reitter). See genus Dromaeolus  
#6 Pronotum with an incomplete or incomplete and doubled or interrupted angle along the side which is more ridged towards the front and continues to the front angles.


-- Pronotum with a complete angle at the sides (rarely rounded with the angle completely missing); front margin simple; sides of the prosternum without a deep furrow to accommodate the antennae next to the under-folded sides of the pronotum.


#7 Second segment of the antennae small, only half the length of the fourth. Prothorax with a complete furrow to accommodate the antennae between the suture of the prosternum and the folded-under sides of the pronotum.


-- Second segment of the antennae as long as the fourth. Prothorax without a parallel-sided furrow to accommodate the antennae between the suture and the under-folded sides of the pronotum. Tips of the elytra coarse granular and humped. Very variable species. Length 3.5-10 mm [Abb.3].

   ...Farsus Jacquelin du Val, 1863

#8 The fourth segment of the tarsi is obliquely incised and not extending significantly under the fifth segment. [Abb.4].

   ...Clypeorhagus Olexa, 1975

-- The fourth segment of the tarsi extends under the fifth segments, leaving a hollow on the top surface into which the fifth segment is inserted [Abb.5].


#9 Antennae inserted far from one another, with the frons between the base of the antennae as wide as the length of the first segment of the antennae and not or slightly less than the distance from the base of the antennae to the eye. Antennae saw-like in both sexes.

   ...Rhacopus Hampe 1855

-- Frons narrow between the base of the antennae, not wider than the breadth of the first segment of the antennae and with the distance between the base of an antenna and the eye 2.5-3 times as wide as the frons between the base of the antennae. Elytra with deep punctures towards the tip. Habitus ♂ [Abb.6], ♀ [Abb.7]. (Dirhagus Latr.)

   ...Microrhagus Dejean, 1833

#10 Hind coxae with the femoral covers narrowing towards the outside, much broader in the centre of the beetle than at the sides. ♂


-- Hind coxae with the femoral covers parallel-sided. Pronotum spherically convex.


#11 Sides of the pronotum without a border. Antennal segments conical, broader towards the tips than at the base; second segment equal in length to the fourth; last segment quite long and asymmetrical at the tip, emarginate at the side. Pronotum with a deep median furrow which reaches forwards scarcely as far as the middle. Ends of the elytra with in a tiny point adjacent to the suture. (Silenus Latr.).

   ...Anelastes Kirby, 1818.

-- Sides of the pronotum sharply bordered.


#12 The last 3 or 4 segments of the antennae distinctly elongate, not saw-like.


-- The last 3 or 4 segments of the antennae not noticeably elongate, but sometimes the last five segments are enlarged.


#13 The last four antennal segments are very strongly elongate.

   ...Epiphanis Eschscholtz, 1829

-- The last three antennal segments are elongate. Siberia; not occurring in Europe

   ...Phlegon Cast.

#14 Antennae with the segments from the fourth strongly saw-toothed in females[Abb.8]; in males they are extended in long processes. Basal lobe of the pronotum in front of the scutellum shortly incised, so that the scutellum is flanked by two teeth. Pronotum with an impressed median furrow which fades before reaching the front. The last two sternites project at the tip as a downwardly directed tooth.

   ...Isorhipis Boisduval & Lacordaire, 1835.

-- Middle segments of the antennae not clearly saw-like or extended into processes; third segment not or only slightly longer than those either side. Basal lobe of the pronotum truncate in front of the scutellum.


#15 The last five segments of the antennae are more strongly distinct, rather longer and thicker than the previous segments. Pronotum much longer than wide, broadest before the middle. Anal sternite projecting in a small triangular point.

   ...Nematodes Berthold 1827

-- The last five segments are not significantly different from the previous ones. Anal segment rounded, simple. Pronotum not longer than wide.


#16 Body quite long and obliquely hairy. Antennae long with all the segments longer than wide; segment two not shortened, as long as the fourth. Epipleura of the elytra narrow along the whole length of the elytra, not suddenly narrowed and disappearing by the hind coxae. First segment of the front tarsi elongate, thickened with a transverse angle underneath; small fourth segment is shortly lobed underneath. Spanish species.

   ...Anelastidius Jacquelin du Val, 1863

-- Body finely prostrate hairy. At least the second segment of the antennae is shortened. Epipleura of the elytra broad towards the front and suddenly narrowing and then gradually disappearing by the hind coxae. The fourth segment of the tarsi simple.


#17 Only the second segment of the antennae is shortened; segment three is longer than the fourth. Pronotum with a short, often doubled longitudinal furrow in front of the scutellum. Habitus [Abb.9]. (Hypocoelus Lacord.)

   ...Hylis Des Gozis 1886

-- The second and third segments of the antennae are abbreviated, shorter than the subsequent segments; segments 4-10 of similar length, not longer than wide. Pronotum with a short, smooth longitudinal fissure. Epipleura of the elytra not suddenly narrowing by the hind coxae but gradually tapering. First segment of the front tarsi not elongate, shorter than the second and third combined. Caucasus.

   ...Hypohylis Reitter 1911

#18 Pronotum with a longitudinal furrow, finely wrinkled, granular, dull. Length from 5-9 mm. Segments 3 or 4 clearly longer than their neighbours.


-- Pronotum without a furrow, shining [Abb.10], punctured. The antennae are thread-like; segments 2-10 of almost identical form and length. Small species, 2.0-5.5 mm.


#19 Head with a longitudinal furrow. Pronotum with a smooth transverse impression each side of the middle line. Antennae scarcely or weakly saw-toothed; segment two as long as the fourth with segment three twice as long. (Xylophilus of authors including FHL)

   ...Hylochares Latreille 1834

-- Head with a fine longitudinal keel. Pronotum with an indistinct impression either side. Antennae with segments two and three distinctly abbreviated; segment four more elongate than subsequent segments; fourth and subsequent segments saw-toothed, strongly so in females, and even more so in males.

   ...Otho Lacordaire, 1857

#20 Body cylindrical; pronotum very convex without a median furrow, shining and sparsely punctured. Segments 2 and 3 of the antennae rather abbreviated; segments 4-10 of the same length, isodiametric. Elytra yellowish-brown [Abb.10]. (Xylobius Latr.)

   ...Xylophilus Mannerheim, 1823

-- Body oval in cross section. Pronotum somewhat convex. Black species, the elytra with a yellowish-red spot [Abb.11]. Genus

   ...Drapetes Dejean, 1821

Now classified as a separate family - see Lissomidae
     First prepared: 05.08.2009
Latest edit: 06.02.2017 - 01:35:57
Creative Commons Lizenzvertrag
Käfer Europas by Arved Lompe and this translation by Mike Hackston
are licensed under a
Creative Commons International 4.0 License BY-SA